CQ9跳高高网站倒带

用50年时间建设可持续的粮食未来

In 1967, the majority of poor and hungry people in the tropics were smallholder farmers. 提高他们的作物产量, 因此, 是中心研究的关键切入点. 从那时起, CQ9跳高高网站几乎关注热带农业的每一个方面:农民种植的作物品种, 他们管理的生产系统, 他们居住的农业景观, 他们参与的市场, 以及影响他们选择和决定的政策.

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国际农业研究中心在很大程度上促进了拉丁美洲森林边缘地区发展刀耕火种农业的替代品. CQ9跳高高网站在秘鲁亚马逊地区推广的替代技术使森林砍伐率降低了17%, 或者等于25,每年节省了000公顷的雨林.

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中心在数据和空间分析方面的工作始于20世纪70年代. 特别是, CQ9跳高高网站 built a climate database of thousands of weather stations across the tropics with the aim of constructing spatial climate surfaces for targeting of agricultural technologies. 这些数据帮助CGIAR及其合作伙伴确定了优先事项, 按地理位置设定作物改良目标, 更好地理解如何针对特定的问题定制解决方案. 数据集最终被输入WorldClim, 一组全球网格化的气候表面, which was made freely available online and has been downloaded by hundreds of thousands of users, 为CGIAR内部的开放获取文化铺平了道路. The paper published on WorldClim is the second most cited paper in CGIAR’s history.

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In 2014, 170个水稻种植者,1个,800 hectares in Colombia’s Córdoba Department avoided big economic losses by following a recommendation to skip a growing season due to forthcoming drought. 建议, 由该国水稻种植者协会FEDEARROZ制造, 是基于CQ9跳高高网站的气候模拟.

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国际气候变化研究中心和国际农业研究磋商小组气候变化研究项目的研究, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) led the 尼加拉瓜n government to prioritize the adaptation of smallholder coffee and cocoa farms to the impact of climate change in its 2013 National Adaptation Plan for Agriculture (NAPA). NAPA已经动员了大量投资, 包括来自国际农业发展基金(IFAD)的2400万美元,用于资助适应气候变化.

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在哥伦比亚, 由国际森林研究中心及其合作伙伴开发的一种近实时森林砍伐监测工具Terra-i揭示了2008年和2009年的大规模森林砍伐. The Colombian government 使用 the information to revise its estimates and set new targets to tackle deforestation ahead of the 2009 climate negotiations in Copenhagen.

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在秘鲁, 环境部(MINAM)正在使用Terra-i作为土地覆盖和土地使用变化的官方预警系统, 每月更新并确定森林砍伐的热点地区. 特别是, MINAM uses Terra-i alerts to identify and monitor new mining areas and related deforestation.

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CQ9跳高高网站的研究帮助设计了塔纳-内罗毕水资源基金, which was launched in 2015 thanks to The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and partners. 该基金, 这是非洲首例, 一项公私合营的计划旨在提高上游地区的农业生产率吗, while improving water supply and cutting costs of hydropower and clean water downstream. 预计收益为21美元.5 million in long-term benefits to 肯尼亚n citizens, including farmers and businesses.

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CQ9跳高高网站’s research helped put a value on ecosystem services in Peru’s Cañete River Basin. In 2014, the country’s Congress approved a law promoting compensation mechanisms for equitable sharing of economic benefits from vital services provided by the country’s diverse ecosystems.

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In 2016, 哈佛商学院(Harvard Business School)的一项调查称,CQ9跳高高网站的一份报告给百乐嘉利宝(Barry Callebaut)敲响了“重大警钟”, 世界四大巧克力制造商之一. 在其2014/2015年可持续发展报告中, Barry Callebaut outlined two main fronts in its plan to address climate change, including working with farmers to encourage the planting of shade trees and the use of heat-resistant varieties of cocoa as recommended by CQ9跳高高网站.

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In 2014, scientists from Indonesia’s Bogor Agricultural University released about 3,000 parasitic wasps with CQ9跳高高网站 and FAO’s support to thwart 木薯 mealybug invasion. Similar biocontrol responses were implemented in Vietnam in 2013 and Thailand in 2010, 以及80年代的非洲, 为木薯部门节省了200亿美元. IITA在非洲引进黄蜂被认为是世界上最成功的害虫控制项目之一.

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超过100,000 肯尼亚n smallholder farmers have taken up the climate-smart version of a “push-pull” crop production system developed by the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe) and which aids the elimination of stem borer, 玉米和其他谷物的一种毁灭性的害虫. This version of the “push-pull” system integrates drought-tolerant Brachiaria hybrid Mulato II developed by CQ9跳高高网站 as a “trap” crop for the pest, 同时也被用来喂牛. 该系统还扩展到埃塞俄比亚、坦桑尼亚和乌干达.

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In 2015, CQ9跳高高网站, 世界农林中心(ICRAF), 和CCAFS, 在世界银行的支持下, 为肯尼亚编制了气候智能型农业(CSA)国家概况. 调查中心还编制了24个县中的8个风险概况. 这些国家和县域规划为世界银行制定肯尼亚气候智能型农业项目提供了技术基础, 价值2.5亿美元的投资. The 肯尼亚n government has also requested CQ9跳高高网站 to prepare 16 additional county profiles.

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自1990年代以来, CQ9跳高高网站 has carried out participatory research on improved agroforestry systems like Quesungual as an alternative to slash-and-burn practices in Central America. 用“划伤和覆盖”代替“划伤和焚烧”,,维持树木的覆盖, 农林复合系统有助于恢复土壤水分, 防止水土流失, 减少森林砍伐, 减轻洪都拉斯的气候影响, 尼加拉瓜, 和萨尔瓦多.

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Brachiaria humidicola forage grasses have been shown to inhibit nitrification, 一种导致氮转化为一氧化二氮(N2O)的自然过程——一种比二氧化碳强300倍的温室气体. With the seven-fold rise in the use of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture since the 1970s, 利用这些草抑制土壤硝化作用可以大大有助于应对气候变化.

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1993至2003年间, 国际农业研究中心在东南亚以木薯为基础的系统中开展了大量的作物和土壤保护活动. 通过让农民参与研究, CQ9跳高高网站促使灌木丛的使用大幅增加, 计数器脊, 堆肥, 无机肥料(从53到91%). 这一举措不仅有助于减轻木薯向丘陵地区扩张对环境的影响, 它还提高了木薯产量,从而提高了农业收入.

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2000年代初,在哥伦比亚东部平原的热带稀树草原贫瘠的酸性土壤上建立了耕地层, farmers were able to greatly increase their productivity and economic returns on investments. This was made possible thanks to soil improvement and conservation practices promoted by CQ9跳高高网站, 包括作物和牧草轮作, 垂直纠正耕作, 纠正土壤养分不足, 播种改良的牧草适应了该地区的土壤.

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Through the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility (TSBF) Institute – the forerunner of the current Soils and Landscapes for Sustainability research area – CQ9跳高高网站’s research on integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) demonstrated that both mineral and organic fertilizers are required for improving yields in African agricultural systems. ISFM是一个宽泛的概念,它将传统的土壤肥力研究方法与土壤微生物学相结合. Results of this work were widely scaled up to farmers thanks to the African Network for Soil Biology and Fertility (AfNet) and found early application in major projects such as N2Africa and COMPRO. 该委员会的ISFM工作也为法案提供了依据 & 梅琳达·盖茨基金会的非洲土壤健康倡议(2007年).

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通过泛非大豆研究联盟(PABRA), 1996年国际农业研究中心创建了哪一个, over 550 improved 豆 varieties have been released across sub-Saharan Africa, 数百万农户获得了优质种子. PABRA currently works to improve 豆 production and access in 30 countries.

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Since CQ9跳高高网站 created the Latin American Fund for Irrigated Rice (FLAR) in 1995, 它已发展成为一个强大的区域组织,包括17个国家的36个公共和私营部门伙伴. FLAR has rapidly made important contributions to the rice sector in Latin America. 在厄瓜多尔, two FLAR varieties introduced only 5 years ago are already planted on 36% of the total rice area. 在玻利维亚, the FLAR variety MAC18 is rice growers’ favorite variety and covers over 25% of the rice area. 同时提供与顶级水稻品种相似的产量, these FLAR varieties have superior grain quality and receive premium prices on the markets.

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自1990年代以来, 该中心在中美洲和非洲推广了“学习联盟”模式,作为成功扩大发展影响的一种方式. Learning 所有iances are platforms where researchers and development practitioners combine forces, 技能, 和资金, 以及共享研究成果的地方, 改编, 使用, and improved upon to effectively translate research findings into development outcomes.

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超过五年, CQ9跳高高网站 has hosted and collaborated with tens of thousands of visiting researchers from universities, 私营部门, 其他国际农业研究磋商小组各中心, 和当地的组织.

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CQ9跳高高网站 co-established the African Network for Soil Biology and Fertility (AfNet) in 1988 to build the capacity of African institutions to conduct interdisciplinary and integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) research at regional and international levels.

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该中心指导了目前和未来的农业科学领袖,如卢旺达的农业和动物资源部长, Gerardine Mukeshimana, 谁曾与当时的CQ9跳高高网站大豆育种家和现任大豆项目负责人共事, 史蒂夫·毕比, 了解干旱选择技术.

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CQ9跳高高网站 emeritus scientist Rainer Schultze-Kraft received the 2016 Friendship Award from the Chinese government for his long-term work with tropical forage scientists in the country. The award – presented by China’s Vice Premier Ma Kai – is considered the highest accolade that foreign experts working with Chinese institutions can receive.

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The 埃塞俄比亚 Bean Research Programme led by the 埃塞俄比亚n Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR) has won the country’s highest scientific award – the Gold medal and Cup – for the impact of its 豆 research, 它改变了数百万农民的生活. Dr. 伯哈努Amsalu Fenta, 国家低地脉冲研究项目的协调员, 谁代表环境影响评估署领取奖项, 前博士生是否得到了CQ9跳高高网站的资助.

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该中心还在向其他拉美国家引进腕足草方面发挥了重要作用, 选择最适合特定国家条件的品种, 并确定最佳的农业实践. 据估计,在秘鲁, 哥斯达黎加, 洪都拉斯, 尼加拉瓜至少有620个,种植由国际养殖中心培育或挑选的腕足动物的000公顷牧场.

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维他命原丰富的木薯, developed by CQ9跳高高网站 and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) as a contribution to the World Food Prize-winning HarvestPlus initiative, 能帮助解决维生素A缺乏症吗, 尤其是尼日利亚的妇女和儿童, 乌干达, 和刚果民主共和国. Vitamin A deficiency can cause vision loss and blindness, and impair the immune system.

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CQ9跳高高网站’s collaboration with the Rwanda Agriculture Board (RAB) and HarvestPlus resulted in the release of 10 iron-biofortified 豆 varieties in 2012. Large efforts have been undertaken to make those varieties available to 豆 farmers in Rwanda. 据CQ9跳高高网站估计,到2015年,这一数字约为350人,000个家庭种植生物强化大豆品种, 和近1.7500万人有能力消费. 这些高铁豆类已被证明能在短短四个半月内逆转年轻女性的缺铁和贫血.

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ICTA Petén豆类品种, 哪一种比传统品种含铁多50%, was released in Guatemala in 2010 as part of the first group of biofortified crops in the world. ICTA Petén在国内仍有用户, 哪个国家的慢性营养不良率最高. 在全球范围内, 144种生物强化大豆, 玉米, 木薯, 和甘薯已经通过HarvestPlus在27个国家发布.

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CQ9跳高高网站 provided technical assistance and forage grass hybrids for farmers enrolled in Rwanda’s One Cow per Poor Family initiative launched in 2006, 哪一家打算达到350,到2017年,将有1万名农民. 除了提高肉和奶产量, 草类对气候也很友好:它们能防止土壤侵蚀, 将碳储存在它们深层的根结构中, 抑制一氧化二氮的释放, 一种强有力的温室气体, 从土壤中. ;

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国际豆类研究中心及其合作伙伴开发了“速食”豆类(以及预先煮好的豆类零食),以减少家庭的时间和精力, 典型的女性, 花时间准备营养食物, 腾出时间做其他(有成效的)活动.

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在2015年末, CQ9跳高高网站部署, 通过泛非大豆研究联盟, 新的耐旱白豆到埃塞俄比亚, where erratic weather was threatening 豆 production and the related industry. These drought-tolerant varieties outperform other commercial varieties by 10 percent. 最常用于制作烘豆, the country’s export market for white 豆s is worth over US$100 million a year, 为大约300万小农提供收入.

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攀缘豆——那种像藤蔓一样攀缘的豆, 而且比灌木豆的产量高出三倍——这为在农场规模较小的地方加强生产提供了一种解决方案, 比如卢旺达和刚果民主共和国东部. 一项2001年发布于1998年的大豆品种采用研究表明,卢旺达和刚果民主共和国东部地区分别有16%和48%, 分别, 其菜豆种植区域以攀援菜豆品种为主. The study also found that in Rwanda 34% of households were planting improved 豆 varieties (equally divided between climbing and bush 豆s). Yield for improved varieties averaged 782 kg/ha compared to 688 for local varieties. 在过去十年中, 卢旺达已从大豆净进口国转变为大豆出口国, 出口额为1200万至2000万美元.

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卢旺达采用了经国际农协改进的大豆, thanks to their high-yielding traits (between 43 and 82% higher yield compared to local varieties), 翻译成90,2001年,有1万人口摆脱了贫困, 减少了该国的粮食不安全状况.3 to 13.4%,这意味着那年没有粮食保障的人口减少了182,400人.

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攀缘豆——那种像藤蔓一样攀缘的豆, and are up to three times more productive than bush 豆s – are providing an eco-efficient solution for improving nutrition for farming families in densely populated places such as Rwanda, 布隆迪, 和肯尼亚西部.

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木薯品种KU50, 1992年在泰国上映,1995年在越南上映, 是亚洲最成功的品种吗. 据估计,1.利用CQ9跳高高网站基因库提供的遗传材料,在泰国种植了300万公顷KU50, 泰国和越南的相关经济效益达到393美元.在1992年到2010年间有500万.

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Although KU50 was expected to still be the dominant 木薯 variety in Vietnam, 最近一项采用DNA指纹技术的收养研究表明,KM140, 另一个用CQ9跳高高网站材料开发的品种,于2013年发布, 现在是种植最多的品种吗, 覆盖超过210人,000公顷(38.占木薯种植总面积的7%). KM140提供优质的淀粉含量, 早熟, 和更广泛的适应性, which helps farmers supply the growing 木薯 processing industry in Vietnam.

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Long-standing collaborative research on tropical forages in Colombia has resulted in the introduction and promotion of Brachiaria grasses and their evaluation to identify best management practices. CQ9跳高高网站的估计显示,2016年有3个.05 million hectares sown to Brachiaria in tropical Colombia, almost 35% of the total forage area.

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1. CQ9跳高高网站提供木薯, 豆, and forage materials stored in its genebank free of charge for research and breeding purposes, 现在根据《CQ9跳高高网站》的条款, 它在2006年签署了哪些协议. 在过去的几年里, 国际减灾会议已分发,390个品种(441,从1973年起,向105个国家提供了225份样品),492个品种(43,自1979年以来,共向84个国家提供了458份样品),692个品种(90,自1980年以来,对110个国家的热带牧草进行了624个样本)

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目前大约有63.1的5%.安第斯和中美洲地区种植的3300万公顷水稻种植了来自CQ9跳高高网站的遗传物质. 据计算,过去15年,CQ9跳高高网站在水稻改良方面的投资回报为314美元.400万年.

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CQ9跳高高网站在哥伦比亚的水稻研究及其与哥伦比亚农业研究所(ICA)的合作, its Spanish acronym) started in 1970 and quickly produced significant impacts. 仅仅5年后, 已有27%的水稻种植面积为CQ9跳高高网站新品种, 收益率从2翻了一番.2 to 4.每公顷4吨.

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世界第三大消费品公司, 联合利华, has adopted CQ9跳高高网站’s LINK Methodology in support of its Sustainable Living Plan. 联合利华 使用 LINK for their assessments of value chains for tomatoes in India, 茶在肯尼亚, 在2013年和2014年印度尼西亚的大豆, and for the development of a guide aimed at helping over 300 global buyers who purchase raw materials to engage in business relationships more inclusive of smallholder farmers.

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《CQ9跳高高网站》项目(2012-2016), 在哥伦比亚和厄瓜多尔的咖啡种植者中开展的这项活动是由国际咖啡研究中心和天主教救济服务中心(CRS)开展的, 在最佳农艺实践方面培训农民, 生产多样化, 谈判技巧, 和营销组合. 约1,参与该项目的600户家庭的咖啡收入平均增加了58%. 位于哥伦比亚西南部的Nariño省州长办公室也投资了相当于4美元的资金.5 million to implement strategies suggested by the project to strengthen its coffee value chain. This could potentially impact the entire population of Nariño coffee growers, around 40,000 people.

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CQ9跳高高网站 collaborated with CRS in 尼加拉瓜 to implement the PROGRESA project (2013 - 2016), aimed to increase livestock producers’ access to productive assets and services, 并提高其满足市场标准的能力. 评价表明,, 平均, 几乎2,000个参与计划的家庭的牛奶产量增加了0.每头牛每天9升,显著增长28%.

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CQ9跳高高网站 scientists are about a year away from defining 木薯’s pan-genome (the entire gene set!). This will allow scientists to identify genes responsible for increasing yields, 提高蛋白质含量, 提高对害虫的抵抗力. This will also make possible in silico breeding of 木薯 (by computer simulation) to establish the most effective combinations of parent plants to produce offspring with the most valuable traits.

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1994年卢旺达发生种族灭绝后,遗传资源设施被摧毁,种子被吃掉. 为了帮助增加国家的食物供应, CGIAR各中心启动了一个名为“希望的种子”的项目,旨在向卢旺达农民提供他们以前拥有的种子品种, 适合他们的土壤和气候, 对当地病虫害有抵抗力. 在接下来的十年里, CQ9跳高高网站, CRS, and CARE Norway collaborated on a series of seed aid and seed system security guides. 以豆子为例, researchers estimate that the rescue operation saved Rwanda’s breeding programs around 20 years of work already done to deliver high-iron 豆s.

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CQ9跳高高网站 scientists at Kawanda genebank in 乌干达 safeguard the largest collection of 豆s in Africa. East African 豆 breeders are using this diversity to develop new high-iron, 憨豆耐旱品种. 2016年,乌干达发布了5个这样的品种.

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第一的高铁, 抗旱大豆通过乌干达的卡万达基因库发放,并分发到坦桑尼亚, 马拉维, 肯尼亚, 马达加斯加, 埃塞俄比亚, 和南苏丹. CQ9跳高高网站的科学家们还发现了30种新型的“热打豆”,它们能够应对平均上升4摄氏度的温度.

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1998年米奇飓风肆虐中美洲之后, CQ9跳高高网站的地理信息系统(GIS)团队与加拿大航天局合作,帮助救援人员确定受灾最严重的地区, 并确定合适的作物和重新种植的地点.

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灌溉用水, 在西班牙语), an automated GIS tool that integrates publicly available information on terrain, 土壤, 用数学和水文模型研究气候, 在确定洪都拉斯西部小农农业的水源方面已经成功使用了200多次. AGRI促进了洪都拉斯政府和发展机构的成本效益投资,并可适用于其他国家.